For the next seven days, surface and reconnaissance observations found little evidence that the storm was strengthening.  Joan remained well organized as it crossed Nicaragua and emerged in the eastern Pacific Ocean basin as Tropical Storm Miriam.  Across the country, the storm damaged roads and bridges. The system was forced west due to a strong ridge in the eastern Atlantic. Moderate to heavy rain was reported along the west coast of Africa, but no damage was reported.  Westerly vertical wind shear prevented deep convection at the center of the storm.  However, because of its extreme eastern track, the storm's observational track did not include this information. The first cyclone to attain tropical storm status was Alberto on August 8, nearly a month later than usual. The name lists repeat every six year and the only way the names are changed is if a name is retired.  Its track along the northern coast of South America was very rare; Joan was one of only a few Atlantic tropical cyclones to move in this way. , While Hurricane Helene was spinning in the central Atlantic, a tropical wave that moved off the coast of Africa in late September rapidly organized.  An approaching weak frontal trough pushed the depression northeastward and enhanced its upper-level outflow. , A tropical wave with deeply organized convection crossed the coast of Africa on September 15. The six lists above are used in rotation and re-cycled every six years, i.e., the 2019 list will be used again in 2025. The rainfall caused localized flooding, which briefly closed some streets. 1", "Rainfall Summary for Tropical Depression One", "Tropical Storm Alberto Preliminary Report", "Canadian Tropical Cyclone Season Summary for 1988", "Tropical Storm Beryl Preliminary Report", "Rainfall Summary for Tropical Storm Beryl", "Rainfall Summary for Tropical Depression Four", "Rainfall Summary for Tropical Storm Chris", "Tropical Storm Chris Preliminary Report", "Tropical Storm Ernesto Preliminary Report", "Rainfall Summary for Tropical Depression Ten", "Unnamed Tropical Storm Preliminary Report", "Rainfall Summary for Hurricane Florence", "Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Wilma", "Tropical Storm Isaac Preliminary Report", "Tropical Depression Twenty-E Discussion for 0300 UTC", "Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Ivan", "Tropical Storm Keith Preliminary Report", The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Tropical Cyclones from 1851 to 2010 (And Other Frequently Requested Hurricane Facts), 10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<2248:AHSO>2.0.CO;2, Detailed information on all storms from 1988, Information concerning U.S. rainfall from tropical cyclones in 1988, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1988_Atlantic_hurricane_season&oldid=993741005, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2018, Articles which contain graphical timelines, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, United States East Coast, Atlantic Canada, Venezuela, Central America, Hispaniola, Mexico, Lesser Antilles, Colombia, Venezuela, Central America. After crossing the islands, the depression continued westward into the central Caribbean and encountered less-favorable conditions. , The depression drifted eastward under the influence of the dissipating frontal trough and intensified into Tropical Storm Florence, as confirmed by Hurricane Hunters.  Upon striking Louisiana, storm surge water levels rose moderately above normal just east of where the center moved ashore. The following names were used for named storms that formed in the north Atlantic in 1988. The 1990 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season since 1969, with a total of 14 named storms.The season also featured eight hurricanes, one of which intensified into a major hurricane. This is the same list used for the 1982 season. A normal season as defined by NOAA has six to fourteen named storms of which four to eight reach hurricane strength and one to three become major hurricanes.  The system gradually dissipated on October 21 while Joan was experiencing rapid strengthening just before its arrival on the coast of Nicaragua. Joan at the time was the southernmost Category 4 hurricane ever recorded, but this record has since been broken by Hurricane Ivan. Storms in the 1910s. The name lists repeat every six year and the only way the names are changed is if a name is retired. After passing through the southern Lesser Antilles, Joan traveled westward along the South American coast as a minimal tropical storm. The last storm of the season, Tropical Storm Keith, dissipated on November 24, only 6 days before the official end of the season on November 30. The June through November dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The tight center tracked towards the Pacific coast and reemerged near Manzanillo on September 5. That record is held by an, Timeline of the 1988 Atlantic hurricane season, List of wettest tropical cyclones in Cuba since 1963, "Tropical Meteorology Project Forecast Verifications Errors", 10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<2260:ATSO>2.0.CO;2, "Average NHC Atlantic Track Forecast Errors", "Atlantic basin: Comparison of Original and Revised HURDAT", "Background information: the North Atlantic Hurricane Season", "Lluvias intensas observadas y grandes inundaciones reportadas", "Características generales de los factores del régimen hidrológico de Cuba", "Cuba – Heavy Rains Jun 1988 UNDRO Information Report No. There have been a total of 240 names used for tropical storms and hurricanes in the Atlantic Basin since names were introduced in 1950. It traveled westward at a low latitude along the Intertropical Convergence Zone (or ITCZ), and its convection gradually grew more organized. The storm went on to cause death and destruction in Mexico and spur a batch of tornadoes in Texas .  Flooding prompted officials to use rescue crews, helicopters, and amphibious vehicles to evacuate 65,000 residents in low-lying areas to higher grounds. For example, one hurricane canbe moving slowly westward in the Gulf of Mexico, while at exactlythe same time another hurricane can be moving rapidly northward alongthe Atlantic coast. The hurricane quickly weakened as it crossed the peninsula and emerged into the Gulf of Mexico as a Category 2 hurricane. Below is the list of Atlantic Ocean retired names and the year the hurricane(s) occurred. By August 6 the storm was designated the second tropical depression of the season. A low pressur… This unnamed storm was later added to the list of tropical storms in the annual summary for the Atlantic hurricane season. It moved westward through the Caribbean Sea and became organized enough to attain tropical storm status on November 20. Joan also brought heavy rainfall and mudslides to countries along the extreme southern Caribbean. However tropical cyclone can form outside these dates for example, Tropical Depression One formed on May 30. Until 2007's Hurricane Dean, it was also the most recent storm to make landfall as a Category 5 hurricane in Mexico. Hurricane Case Studies. The season officially began on June 1, 1988, and lasted until November 30, 1988, although activity began on May 30 when a tropical depression developed in the Caribbean Sea. The first storm, Tropical Depression One, developed on June 15, and dissipated two days later without effects on land. An upper level trough forced it to the northeast, where upper-level shear and cooler drier air weakened it to minimal storm strength in a pattern typical for November. On September 7 the system formed a surface circulation, and tropical depression advisories began that day. The following names were used for named storms that formed in the north Atlantic in 1988. It was an above average season in which 19 tropical depressions formed.  The official storm track forecast errors were 30 to 40 percent lower than the average for the previous 10 years. Storms were named Keith and Oscar for the only time, and Isaac, Joan, Leslie, Michael, Nadine, and Patty for the first time in 1988. They are now maintained and updated througha strict procedure by an international committee of the World Meteorological Organization. All damage figures are in 1988 United States dollars, unless otherwise noted, Although Alberto intensified from a tropical depression to a tropical storm at a higher latitude than any other Atlantic system, it is not the northernmost formation of a tropical cyclone in the Atlantic.  By August 8 surface winds increased enough to issue tropical storm warnings for Louisiana to the Florida Panhandle.  No major damage was reported. Five tropical cyclones reached hurricane status of which three became major hurricanes reaching Category 3 on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale.  Damage near the coast occurred mainly from storm surge and beach erosion, while damage further inland was limited to flooding and downed trees and power lines. , The season's first named storm originated on August 4 within a weak trough of low pressure that formed off the coast of South Carolina. Joan (1988) 5. One tropical storm was operationally classified as a tropical depression but was reclassified in post-analysis.  Nevertheless, the storm lasted only a short time in the shearing environment. Florence became a hurricane just hours before landfall on the western Mississippi Delta.  Flooding from the depression damaged 1,000 houses and destroyed 200 homes in Camagüey Province alone. Though the storm was still very weak, they initially predicted it would strengthen. The storm drifted north-northwest of the Cape Verde islands for the next three days with little change in strength.  A tornado in the city of Camagüey destroyed five Soviet planes and multiple buildings. , A tropical wave in the far eastern Atlantic developed into the fifth tropical depression on August 20. It crossed the Guajira Peninsula on October 17 and quickly attained hurricane strength just 30 mi (48 km) from the coast.  Joan reached its peak intensity just before making landfall near Bluefields, Nicaragua, on October 22 as a Category 4 hurricane. Florence and Helene were not used in 1982 but had been used in previous lists. , The last storm of the season formed from a tropical wave on November 17 to the south of Haiti.  The storm caused $2.98 billion in damage across the Caribbean and into Central America. Opal (1995) 8. As a result, it remained a tropical depression as it moved across portions of the Lesser and Greater Antilles as well as the Bahamas. , The Atlantic hurricane season officially began on June 1, but activity in 1988 began two days earlier with the formation of Tropical Depression One on May 30.  Keith restrengthened over the southeastern Gulf of Mexico and struck near Sarasota, Florida, on November 23. Usually, the six lists of names for tropical storms and hurricanes repeat. When Are Names Retired?  Throughout Cuba, the depression affected about 90,000 people, injuring dozens and killing a total of 37 people, including three who died from electrocution.  The rainfall most affected the province of Cienfuegos, though the provinces of Villa Clara, Sancti Spíritus, Ciego de Ávila, and Camagüey were also impacted. Gilbert continued to strengthen as it brushed the southern coast of Hispaniola. On September 30 the depression was upgraded when an Air Force reconnaissance plane discovered tropical storm-force winds.  Weakening to a depression, Chris poured heavy rains on South Carolina, where it merged with a cold front and became extratropical.  The system did not develop until the low-level center emerged from the Yucatán into the Bay of Campeche on August 31. The official 1988 roster of the Carolina Hurricanes, including position, height, weight, date of birth, age, and birth place. The remnants redeveloped on August 30 about 180 miles (290 km) southeast of North Carolina, and the Washington office of the National Weather Service continued to track the system as a gale center until it merged with a front off the East Coast on September 1.  News reports blamed Tropical Depression Eighteen and other tropical systems for bringing swarms of pink locusts from Africa to Trinidad and other Caribbean nations. The strongest storm on the list was Hurricane Gilbert in 1988, a category 5 hurricane with minimum pressure of 888 mbar. , The third tropical depression of the season formed on August 7 from a surface low over southeastern Louisiana. In the mid-tropical Atlantic, the northern area of convection detached and became Tropical Depression Seven. As a result, no tropical depressions formed in June or July. I bought a brand new 1988 CBR1000F Monza Red and Black Hurricane.  The storm brought high winds, inland flooding, and mudslides and caused 10 deaths.  The storm turned northward on September 9 and accelerated toward the northern Gulf Coast under the influence of a mid- to upper-level trough. Storm names. , On October 10 the 17th tropical depression of the season organized from a disturbance in the ITCZ. Helene began to turn to the northwest on September 21 due to a major trough in the eastern Atlantic. , Maintaining a well-structured outflow, Beryl's circulation on August 9 moved over warm water, where conditions were favorable for further intensification.  The system finally dissipated as it reemerged over water near the mouth of the Mississippi. , A westward-moving tropical wave, that left the coast of Africa in early October, tracked closely behind Hurricane Joan through the southern Caribbean. Great bike for the time. The hurricane executed a tight cyclonic loop in which it weakened greatly but rapidly strengthened upon resuming its westward track. , Gilbert weakened slightly before landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula, although it struck at Category 5 strength. Storms in the 1920s. This season was active with 19 depressions. , Chris formed from a strong tropical wave that moved off the west coast of Africa on August 15. A convective band on the north and west sides of the system became well-defined, and anticyclonic outflow allowed for initial organization. Overall damage from the storm was light, and only one known death was attributed to the storm.  The storm rapidly weakened over southeastern Louisiana and lost all its deep convection as it passed over the New Orleans area. The names not retired from this list were used again in the 1994 season. , By August 24 the depression's forward speed had increased to 15 mph (24 km/h) as its movement turned west. , Debby formed from the southern part of a tropical wave that became Tropical Storm Chris. The following names were used for named storms that formed in the north Atlantic in 1988. Late on September 3 it was upgraded to Tropical Storm Ernesto. Hurricane Joan strengthened into a major hurricane on October 19 while drifting westward. Storms in the 1930s.  Excessive rain fell along the central Gulf Coast, including local amounts of 16 in (410 mm) at Dauphin Island, Alabama. This season was damaging and it featured the strongest storm known at the time, Hurricane Gilbert. 1988- Hurricane Gilbert. , The depression passed south of Puerto Rico on August 24 and dumped more than 14 in (360 mm) of rain on parts of the island. On September 14, 1988, Hurricane Gilbert made a second landfall on Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula as a Category 5 storm. Category 4 hurricane 145 (230) 934 NewFoundLand 5 4 Floyd August 16 – August 22 Category 1 hurricane 85 (140) 979 Jamaica 10 4 Gert August 20 – August 24 Tropical storm 60 (95) 995 None 0 0 Harvey August 31 – September 17 Category 5 hurricane 185 (295) 889 None 0 0 Irene September 10 – September 17 Category 3 hurricane Currently operating under the Nautic Global Group, the Hurricane brand features a product offering of sporty looking deck boats and pontoon-like crafts. The names not retired from this list were used again in the 1994 season. Atlantic tropical cyclone name lists repeat every six years unless a storm is so severe that the Hurricane Committee votes to retire that name from future lists. Alicia (1983) 2.  Twelve depressions attained tropical storm status, and five of these attained hurricane status, of which three reached major hurricane status. This list is the same as the list in 1982 because no names were retired in 1982. Hugo made landfall just north of Charleston, SC at Sullivan's Island around midnight September 22, 1989 as a Category 4 … On September 19 at 18:00 UTC, the system was upgraded to Tropical Depression Fourteen. A tropical disturbance organized into the first eastern Pacific tropical depression of the season on June 15. After forming, the depression tracked west-southwestward and intensified due to disrupted outflow from a large air stream disturbance. , Hurricane Gilbert was the most intense hurricane ever observed in the Atlantic basin until Hurricane Wilma broke this record in 2005. Storm names are retired if they were so deadly or destructive that the future use of the name would be insensitive. Although the World Meteorological Organization now names hurricanes after men and women, storm names weren’t always so equally divided by gender.  However, the remnants dropped heavy rainfall across Trinidad and Tobago, causing flooding and mudslides that injured 20 people and left at least 30 homeless. However, a front approached from the northwest and reversed the storm's course into southeastern Louisiana.  Under the influence of southwesterlies, the depression accelerated northeastward at 50 mph (80 km/h). This list is the name that were set aside for the 1988 Atlantic hurricane season. As the eye moved over land, the storm rapidly lost strength, reemerging on September 15 in the Gulf of Mexico as a Category 2 hurricane. Home > History > Featured Storms > Storms in the 1980s.  Because of unfavorable upper level conditions and interaction with Bahama islands, the system lost its well defined center as it moved towards Florida's east coast. , For three days a large trough of low pressure northwest of the system steered it north-northwest towards cooler waters. It soon had enough convective organization for the National Hurricane Center (NHC) to issue an initial advisory on Tropical Depression Three. Below is a complete list of these names as well as the year they were originally designated. As it moved west-northwest, it became Tropical Storm Gilbert over the islands on September 9. The season produced 19 tropical depressions of which 12 attained tropical storm status. On September 27 the storm became the fifteenth tropical depression of the season while it was about 265 mi (426 km) south-southeast of Cape Verde. Storms before the 1900s.  The depression brought heavy rain to the Netherlands Antilles.  According to the National Weather Service, winds in some squalls to the north and east of the center reached up to 50 mph (80 km/h). Hurricane Gilbert continued its northwest track and restrengthened to a minimal Category 4 hurricane. However, the outflow of the hurricane sheared the depression and sapped its energy. The band split into two over the central Gulf when the southern portion stalled and the northern portion developed into a frontal wave that tracked northeastward.  A large extratropical storm over the North Atlantic absorbed Ernesto on September 5. Rainfall reached 1.78 inches (45.1 mm) in Saint John, New Brunswick, most of which fell in a short amount of time. Tropical cyclones include depressions, storms and hurricanes. Favorable conditions allowed the storm to continue strengthening, and on September 22, Helene became a major hurricane. , Hurricane Joan killed 148 people in Nicaragua and 68 others in affected nations. The center passed south of Monterrey, Mexico, on September 17 and brought heavy flooding to the city. Marilyn (1995) 7. It is only calculated for full advisories on tropical systems at or exceeding 34 knots (39 mph, 63 km/h), which is tropical storm strength. Hurricane Florence; Hurricane Gilbert; Unnamed Tropical Storm; Hurricane Helene; Tropical Depression Fifteen; Tropical Storm Isaac; Hurricane Joan; Tropical Depression Eighteen; Tropical Storm Keith; Storm names. For that reason, the World Meteorological Organization develops a list of names that are assigned in alphabetical order to tropical storms as they are discovered in each hurricane season. The death toll from Gilbert was reported to be 318 people, mostly from Mexico. , Drifting west-northwest over the Gulf of Mexico, the depression organized and reached tropical storm-strength early on September 2.  On September 29 it was identified as Tropical Depression Sixteen about 900 mi (1,400 km) southeast of Barbados. , A cloud band accompanying a cold front exited the coast of Texas into the Gulf of Mexico on September 4. , The season's activity was reflected with an accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) rating of 103, which is classified as "near normal". Tropical cyclones of the 1988 Atlantic hurricane season, From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1988_Atlantic_hurricane_season&oldid=5037105, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.  On August 28 the storm was upgraded to Tropical Storm Chris as it traveled northward just offshore of Florida.  The system spawned gusty winds and thunderstorms along the coasts of Florida and Georgia but caused little damage. Hurricane Gabrielle was a Cape Verde hurricane that attained Category 4 status, and was also a large hurricane. The tropical storm turned west and rapidly intensified to a major hurricane on September 11. Any country may request that the name of a hurricane be “… The most notable cyclone of the season was Hurricane Gilbert, which at the time was the strongest Atlantic hurricane on record. Hurricane Dean reached Category 2 status and passed over Bermuda on August 6, bringing hurricane conditions to the island. Later that month, Tropical Storm Allison caused severe flooding, especially in Texas and Louisiana. However, if there is an unusually large or damaging hurricane, the name is retired by the World Meteorological Organization’s hurricane committee because using it again could be considered insensitive and could also cause confusion.  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