( See also Underground Railroad.) It is the first international trial against a corporation on grounds of modern slavery within its supply chains. Two-thirds of the interviewed workers also reported that they were recruited through an employment agency which charged high fees for organising their employment and documentation. Of those analysed by the Modern Slavery Act Research project on the Wikirate platform, statements by Bank of Montreal78 and Estee Lauder Cosmetics79 are among those that include details on policies and due diligence processes that apply to their own business and are signed by a director/chairman and approved by the board. The new code could be used as a tool to help Canada meets its international commitments, such as ILO conventions and the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, and address concerns regarding child and forced labour, human trafficking, and unsafe employment practices.67 PSPC has reportedly begun the drafting process for a new Code based on recommendations and other feedback,68 however it is currently unclear how this is progressing. Building a commercial enterprise out of the wilderness required labor and lots of it. Ensure more effective investigations and prosecutions of modern slavery crimes by removing any barriers that prevent federal law enforcement from collecting sufficient evidence, such as jurisdictional constraints. A 2017 report by the United Nations Human Rights Working Group called on Canada to recognize the lasting damage done by slavery and segregation. Former Canadian parliamentary poet laureate George Elliott Clarke was commissioned by IDEAS to write two poems for this series. It has been noted that this is also due to a lack of knowledge and awareness surrounding labour trafficking in Canada. Available from: Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of, https://wikirate.org/UK_Modern_Slavery_Act_Research, https://www.canada.ca/en/services/immigration-citizenship.html, https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/services/foreign-workers/reports/2014/lmia-annual-statistics/agricultural.html. It is common knowledge that we saved runaway slaves from the United States, but few know that Africans and Indigenous peoples were bought, sold and exploited, right here. There was indigenous slavery and black slavery, but it was not the same sort of slavery you would see in the south with cotton fields or sugar cane fields. Migrant Worker Solidarity Network Manitoba 2016. The ramifications of both the trauma of slavery and the massive wealth gap it created have reverberated across the generations. First, a quick reminder of the Act itself and the scale of the issue it seeks to address. The Commonwealth Act establishes a national Modern Slavery Reporting Requirement that seeks to uncover the impact of large organisations on modern slavery both in Australia and abroad. The Act was one of the most controversial elements of the 1850 compromise and heightened Northern fears of a "slave power conspiracy. [15, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2015/30/contents/enacted, https://www.modernslaveryregistry.org/explore?countries%5B%5D=1495&company_name=&legislation_UK+Modern+Slavery+Act=yes, http://claihr.ca/2017/04/06/araya-v-nevsun-resources-ltd-an-overview/, https://s3-ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/walkfreefoundation.org-assets/content/uploads/2018/03/29152400/02_The-Nevsun-Effect-1801229-Final-.pdf. The results of a survey of 33 Filipino live-in care workers between 2012 and 2014 found evidence of withholding immigration documents and threat of deportation (reported by six workers), physical violence (five workers), accusations (18), insults (15), psychological, moral and sexual harassment (13), and different types of threats (15), such as threat of being reported to the immigration authorities. Black children are more likely to be in foster care. Criminalise forced labour as a distinct offence in the criminal code, in line with international definitions. As records show, slavery in what is now known as Canada began long before European traders and colonists arrived. Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada, 2016. In Nova Scotia alone in recent years, there has been a cross-burning on the lawn of a mixed race couple, racist graffiti on the campaign signs of minority candidates in provincial elections and a noose tied to a Black teacher's classroom door. Canadian boards are facing mounting pressures to address a broader range of issues in light of a burgeoning movement in American corporate governance urging boards to look beyond the interests of their shareholders. Introduce a National Referral Mechanism (NRM) to ensure that all victims of modern slavery are centrally registered by authorities and data is reported annually. An Economy Built on Slavery. In 1833 Parliament passed a further act to abolish slavery in the British West Indies, Canada and the Cape of Good Hope (southern Africa), meaning that it was now illegal to buy or own a person. The first of these mile… PSPC also announced it will meet with suppliers, industry associations and other stakeholders in the apparel industry to discuss current practices on ethical manufacturing and sourcing throughout their supply chains.70 The government of Canada, through PSPC, reportedly has active contracts for the procurement of apparel totalling more than Can$640 million (US$509 million71).72, In 2016, the Walk Free Foundation and WikiRate73 partnered to develop a UK Modern Slavery Act Research project that would contribute to transparency on corporate action on modern slavery by enabling members of the public to view and assess modern slavery statements produced under Section 54 of the UK Modern Slavery Act.74 Section 54 requires businesses either headquartered or conducting business in the UK and with an annual turnover of over GBP36 million per annum to release an annual statement on the actions they are taking to respond to modern slavery.75 There are an estimated 12,000 to 17,000 statements that will be produced under this reporting requirement, many of which are housed on the Business and Human Rights Resource Centre (BHRRC) Modern Slavery Registry.76. Appoint an Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner who will be responsible for overseeing a coordinated response to modern slavery across all sectors. These findings indicate that the majority of identified forced marriage victims are of a very young age.23 The report also revealed that most victims were born overseas, coming from over 30 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and South America, while 22 victims were Canadian citizens. A 2017 report by the United Nations Human Rights Working Group called on Canada to recognize the lasting damage done by slavery and segregation. So far, 118 cases have resulted in human trafficking specific and/or related convictions, but 296 cases remain before the court (involving about 506 accused perpetrators and 420 victims).1 These figures, of course, do not consider the unknown number of victims that are not reported. Human Trafficking National Coordination Centre 2017. Listen to Part 1 of this series: Canada's slavery secret: The whitewashing of 200 years of enslavement. "Black people are being surveilled and over-policed and carded at a rate that is disproportionate to other people, especially white citizens. From racial slurs to microaggressions, racism remains entrenched in Canadian society, and its root causes may reach further back than we think. ‘Many Chains to Break: The Multi-dimensional Concept of Slave Labour in Brazil’. Pagtakhan, R 2017, ‘Pathway to Canadian citizenship needed for all temporary foreign workers: Pagtakhan’. Indeed, while shareholder primacy has long been the legal bedrock of corporate governance in the US, two recent well-publicized developments suggest that boards are beginning to adopt a broader perspective in the exercise of their fiduciary duties. The Modern Slavery Act shone a spotlight on the issue of modern slavery and human trafficking when it was written into UK law two years ago. This documentary chronicles slavery as it occurred "in Canada" prior to Confederation and refers to colonial Canada. Of those affected, 35 percent were under the age of 18, 31 percent were aged 19 to 24, and 25 percent were aged 25 to 34, with the remaining nine percent aged 35 years and older. The Bank of Montreal statement also provides details on the Bank’s supply chains and whistleblowing mechanisms, among other details. Business and Human Rights Resource Centre 2018. Continuing impact of slavery past and present L e t t e r s Howard Temperley , Gary Craig , Peter Malpass , Amanda Norrie and Margaret Vandacasteele examine the evidence Although the merits of the claim have not yet been heard, this case highlights an increasing global trend for foreign courts to hold companies accountable for human rights abuses.87. See https://wikirate.org/Bank_of_Montreal?filter%5Bmetric_value%5D=all&filter%5Bproject%5D=UK+Modern+Slavery+Act+Research for more details. However, slavery continued in other areas of the British Empire including the territories run by the East India Company, Ceylon (modern day Sri Lanka) and St Helena. Therefore, true estimates are difficult to attain. For the first time, the topic of enslavement has been included in the 2013 revised Ontario Social Studies, History, and Geography curriculum. The top five imported products at risk of modern slavery were identified from an original list of 15 products considered at risk of modern slavery. A Viola Desmond primer. The Global Slavery Index (GSI) is a study of modern slavery published by the Australian-based, Walk Free initiative — a human rights organisation that works towards ending slavery around the globe. It existed both under the French and the English. He has filed for radio, print and television, from the BBC and the CBC to Al Jazeera, the Guardian, the Toronto Star and Le Monde Diplomatique. ‘Government of Canada takes step towards ethical procurement of apparel’ 2017. Bourgeois, R 2015, Colonial Exploitation: The Canadian State and the Trafficking of IndigenousWomen and Girls in Canada. Provincial health insurance is often denied as such insurance relies on a valid work permit.48 There have also been reported cases of female migrant workers hiding their pregnancy for fear of losing their employment status and being deported.49, Although care workers on the LCP were granted the right to live outside their employer’s home as part of the changes to the LCP program in 2014, workers under the program may still be vulnerable to exploitation. This includes Westridge Construction80 among others. Forty-one percent of forced marriage clients were taken out of the country (either taken out of the country they lived in and brought to Canada or taken out of Canada) to be married.24 Fifty percent of individuals who came to see service providers were reportedly not aware of their rights with respect to forced marriage.25, While modern slavery clearly occurs within Canada, the realities of global trade and business make it inevitable that Canada, like many other countries globally, will also be exposed to the risk of modern slavery through the products it imports. Slavery Abolition Act, (1833), in British history, act of Parliament that abolished slavery in most British colonies, freeing more than 800,000 enslaved Africans in the Caribbean and South Africa as well as a small number in Canada. The most common reason for being sent back to their countries of origin were medical or surgical reasons (41.3 percent) or external injuries, defined as trauma and including poisoning (25.5 percent). Slavery is Canada's best-kept secret Canada has burnished its reputation as the terminal station of the Underground Railroad, a safe haven for runaway slaves. Marwaha, S 2017, ‘Anyone can be a victim’: Canadian high school girls being lured into sex trade. It said these systems "lie at the core" of persistent, structural racism, which took hold during the 17th-19th centuries. In 2017, foreign workers who claim they paid thousands of dollars to obtain non-existent jobs at Mac’s convenience stores had their claims certified as a class action lawsuit in the Supreme Court of British Columbia.6 The four workers named in the suit allege they paid up to US$8,500 each in illegal fees to Surrey-based immigration consultant firms to obtain jobs as temporary foreign workers in Western Canada, but upon arrival in Canada discovered there was no job awaiting them.7, The SAWP was designed in the 1960s to fill Canada’s labour shortage for seasonal agricultural labour and allows Canadian farm businesses to hire workers from Mexico and several Caribbean countries on temporary visas during harvesting season.8 In 2015, over 40,000 migrant workers were employed in Canada through the SAWP.9 In 2016, the death of a SAWP migrant farm worker from Jamaica caused public outcry, revealing that many SAWP migrant workers are working under exploitative conditions and are often not appropriately treated following injury.10 A 2014 study reports that during 2001 and 2011, 787 repatriations occurred among 170,315 migrant farm workers arriving in Ontario. Slavery had a direct impact on the classism system that is still very apparent in the society today. All provinces should establish a coordinating body responsible for coordinating the implementation of the province’s strategy to combat human trafficking, similar to Ontario’s newly established Provincial Anti-Human Trafficking Coordination Office. Is there a connection between the enslavement of Black Canadians and their overwhelming presence in the criminal justice system today? The United Nations has sounded the alarm on anti-Black racism in Canada, stating it can be traced back to slavery and its legacy. In addition to losing their place of living, caregivers who would decide to move out of their employer’s home are required to obtain a new Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA) and work permit,50 therefore making it difficult to change employers in practice.51 Additionally, the changes also resulted in live-out caregivers no longer being considered part of the LCP which meant they were no longer eligible to apply for permanent residence under the LCP.52, The Canadian government has criminalised human trafficking under section 279.01 and human trafficking of persons under the age of 18 years under section 279.011 of the criminal code. slavery; and • The differential impact of trafficking and slavery on different groups demarcated by (but not limited to) age, gender, ethnicity, national origins, religion, sexual orientation or practice. Investigations of the Toronto and Halifax police forces found that Black Canadians are stopped and searched three times more often than white Canadians. See https://wikirate.org/Westridge_Construction_Ltd?filter%5Bmetric_value%5D=all&filter%5Bproject%5D=UK+Modern+Slavery+Act+Research for more details. The Code, used by Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSPC), the government of Canada’s central purchasing agency, is being updated to align with the government’s social and sustainable procurement policy objectives. See www.wikirate.org. The Global Slavery Index estimates that on any given day in 2016 there were 17,000 people living in conditions of modern slavery in Canada, a prevalence of 0.5 victims for every thousand people in the country. The data is taken from the BACI 2015 dataset (available from: http://www.cepii.fr/cepii/en/bdd_modele/presentation.asp?id=1). Ministry of Community and Social Services 2016. 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